Langues

Laboratoire de recherche

UMR 6602 - UCA/CNRS/SIGMA

N2 - Quantum Optolectronics and Nanophotonics

Theory of light-matter coupling in semiconductor nanostructures

Permanent staff :

Guillaume Malpuech (CNRS Senior Researcher, head of the group), +33 4 73 40 52 58

Solnyshkov Dmitry (Maître de conférences, HDR, Université Blaise Pascal)

Post-docs :

Berihu Teklu Gebrehiwot (2015)

PhD students :

Anton Nalitov (2012-2015)

 

Former members :

Dmitry Vishnevskii (2010-2013), Hugo Terças (2012-2014), Hugo Flayac (2009-2012), Thomas Weiss (2008-2011), Goran Pavlovic (PhD student 2007-2010), Robert Johne (PhD student 2006-2009), Henni Ouerdane (Post Doc, 2006-2008), Alexey Kavokin (Prof., 1998-2005), Pierre Bigenwald (Assistant Professor, 2001-2006), Ivan Shelykh (Post Doc, 2002-2005), Fabrice Laussy (PhD student, 2002-2005), Marian Zamfirescu (PhD student 2000-2003).

Chair of excellence :

Nikolay Gippius (Prof., 2006-2010).

Long term Visitors (2001-2011) :

Kirill Kavokin (Researcher), Yuri Rubo (Professor), Serguey Tikhodeev (Professor), Natalia Maslova (Professor), Pavlos Lagoudakis (PhD), Mikhail Glazov (PhD), Nikolai Galkin (PhD), Serguey Gavrilov (PhD), Valentin Nikolaev (Post doc).

 


 

Highlights

Highlight September 2012

Hugo Flayac has successfully defended his PhD Thesis.

Highlight November 2010

Goran Pavlovic has successfully defended his PhD Thesis.

Highlight March 2010

The first International School on Spin-Optronics that we have organized in Les Houches has been a great success !

Highlight October 2009

The EU FP7 ITN "Spin-Optronics" project has started 1st October 2009. The official project forum is http://spinoptronics.forumer.com

Highlight September 2009

Robert Johne has successfully defended his PhD thesis entitled : "Strong Light Matter Coupling in Semiconductor Nanostructures : Nonlinear Effects and Applications"

Highlight December 2008

The European proposal “ITN Spin-Optronics”under coordination of Clermont-Ferrand has been selected for funding. The project will start in May 2009.

The collaboration of the group of Quantum Optoelectronics and Nanophotonics with the General Physics Institute (Moscow, Russia) and with the Ioffe Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia) has been supported by the joint CNRS-RFBR PICS project.

Highlight September 2008

Coordination of a European proposal “ITN Spin-Optronics”, 10 european partners.

Highlight February 2008

Dmitry Solnyshkov has won the first prize at the Jeune Chercheur concours of Clermont-Ferrand !

Highlight December 2007

Dmitry Solnyshkov has defended his thesis (6/12/2007).

Highlight November 2007

Publication by A. Kavokin, J.J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech and F.P. Laussy of the Book “Microcavities” Oxford University Press.

Highlight September 2007

Coordination of a European proposal “ITN” devoted to spinoptronic, 10 european partners.

Result of the second round evaluation by end of November. (Although the project passed all thresholds and got 82,8%, it has not finally been funded.)

Highlight January 2007

Organisation of the 3rd international conference on spontaneous coherence in excitonic system (ICSCE3), Les Houches.

Highlight March 2006

Prof. Nikolay Gippius from Moscow was awarded a National Chair of Excellence on the topic “Optical and optoelectronic nanodevices based on strong light-matter coupling”

Various Post doc and PhD student positions are available in this framework.

Contacts : Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser., Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

Highlight 23th March 2006

Organisation in Clermont-Ferrand of the fifth international workshop on solid state physics

Highlight November 2003

Publication by A. Kavokin and G. Malpuech of the Book “Cavity Polaritons” 32th volume of the series Thin films and nanostructures, edited by V. M. Agranovich, Elsevier North Holland (2003).

 

Research activities

  • Theory of Exciton-polaritons in bulk semiconductors, quantum wells, microcavities, microspheres, quantum dots microcavities.
  • Kinetic and thermodynamic theory of Bose Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons in microcavities.
  • Spin dynamics of exciton-polaritons in microcavities.
  • New concepts of devices : polariton lasers and “spin-optronic” devices.
  • Quantum dots in microcavities, strong coupling and application to quantum information processing.
  • Variational calculations of excitons properties in GaAs and GaN based nanostructures.
  • Impact of structural disorder on exciton-polariton propagation:Polariton Motional narrowing and Polariton Resonant Rayleigh Scattering.
  • Optical Bloch oscillations in porous silicon based multi-cavity.
  • Description of left handed materials based on photonic structures.

Research projects

International projects :
  • 2000-2003 European Research Training Network CLERMONT, Physics of nitride based microcavities. Coordinated by A. Kavokin.

Partners : LASMEA, GES Montpellier (B. Gil, P. Lefebvre), CRHEA Valbonne (J. Massies, F. Semond), Sheffield University (M. Skolnick), Southampton University (J.J. Baumberg), Rome University (A. Di Carlo), Florence University (A. Vinnateri, M. Colocci), Linkoping University (B. Monemar).

  • 2004-2007 European Marie Curie Network CLERMONT 2, Physics of microcavities, Coordinated by A. Kavokin.

Partners : LASMEA (G Malpuech), GES Montpellier (B. Gil), CRHEA Valbonne (J. Massies, F. Semond, J.Y. Duboz), LPA ENS Paris (J. Tignon), LPN Marcoussis (J. Bloch), Sheffield University (M. Skolnick), Southampton University (J.J. Baumberg), Rome University (A. Di Carlo), Florence University (A. Vinnateri, M. Colocci), Linkoping University (B. Monemar), Madrid University (L. Vina).

  • 2005-2008 European Specific Targeted Research Project « STIMSCAT », coordinated by M. Skolnick (Sheffield), with the main objective to make an actual Polariton laser device.

    Partners : Sheffield (M. Skolnick), Southampton (J.J. Baumberg), Strathclyde (R. Martin), Sharp Europe (J. Heffernan), CRHEA Valbonne (F. Semond), LASMEA (G. Malpuech), Rome(A. Di Carlo) .

  • 2009-2013 European Initial Training Network "Spin-Optronics" coordinated by G. Malpuech (Clermont-Ferrand). Full Partners : Clermont (G. Malpuech), Grenoble (H. Mariette), Toulouse (T. Amand), Sheffield (A. Tartakovskii), Southampton (P. Lagoudakis), Exeter (M. Portnoi), Toshiba (R.M. Stevenson), St. Petersburg (S. Ivanov), Madrid (L. Viña), Dortmund (D. Yakovlev). Associated Partners : SHARP (M. Senes), Reykjavik (I.A. Shelykh).
  • Organisation of the series of conferences “Physics of Light Matter Coupling in Nanostructures” : PLMCN0 : Saint Nectaire, France, October 2000. PLMCN1 : Rome, Italy, September 2001. PLMCN2 Rethymnon, Greece, May 2002. PLMCN3 Acireale, Italy, September 2003. PLMCN4 Saint Petersburg, Russia June 2004.

PLMCN1 and 2 were sponsored by a euroconference program.

French projects :

  • Jeune Equipe polariton (2002-2004).
  • Equipe Projet Polariton (2002-2004). In the framework of the thematic network Nanophotonique. (Coord. A. Kavokin), 7 partners (LASMEA, CRHEA Valbonne, GES Montpellier, LSP Grenoble, INSA Toulouse, LPA ENS Paris, LPN Marcoussis).
  • ACI Polariton (2002-2005). (Coord. B. Gil, GES), 5 Partners, LASMEA, GES Montpellier, INSA Toulouse, LPA ENS Paris, LPN Marcoussis.
  • Chair of Excellence awarded by Nikolay Gippius (2006-2009) :Optical and optoelectronic nanodevices based on strong light matter coupling.

Main Publications

2015
  1. E. Wertz, A. Amo, D. D. Solnyshkov, L. Ferrier, T. C. H. Liew, D. Sanvitto, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, "Propagation and Amplification Dynamics of 1D Polariton Condensates", Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 216404 (2012).
  2. R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, A. Amo, "Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles", Nature Physics 8, 724 (2012).
  3. H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, "Separation and acceleration of magnetic monopole analogs in semiconductor microcavities", New Journal of Physics 14, 085018 (2012).
  4. D. Vishnevsky, D. Solnyshkov, N.A. Gippiues, G. Malpuech, "Multistability of cavity exciton polaritons affected by the thermally generated exciton reservoir", Phys. Rev. B 85, 155328 (2012).
  5. Marta Galbiati, Lydie Ferrier, Dmitry D. Solnyshkov, Dimitrii Tanese, Esther Wertz, Alberto Amo, Marco Abbarchi, Pascale Senellart, Isabelle Sagnes, Aristide Lemaître, Elisabeth Galopin, Guillaume Malpuech, and Jacqueline Bloch, "Polariton condensation in Photonic Molecules", Phys. Rev. Letters 108, 126403 (2012).
  6. L. Orosz, F. Reveret, F. Medard, P. Disseix, J. Leymarie, M. Mihailovic, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, J. Zuniga-Perez, F. Semond, M. Leroux, S. Bouchoule, X. Lafosse, M. Mexis, C. Brimont ,T. Guillet, "LO-phonon-assisted polariton lasing in a ZnO-based microcavity", Phys. Rev. B 85, 121201 (2012).
  7.  D. Solnyshkov, H. Flayac, G. Malpuech, "Stable magnetic monopoles in spinor polariton condensates", Phys. Rev. B 85, 073105 (2012).
  8. D. Tanese, D. D. Solnyshkov, A. Amo, L. Ferrier, E. Bernet-Rollande, E. Wertz, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, "Backscattering Suppression in Supersonic 1D Polariton Condensates", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 036405 (2012).
2014
  1. A. V. Nalitov, D. D. Solnyshkov, N. A. Gippius, and G. Malpuech, Voltage control of the spin-dependent interaction constants of dipolaritons and its application to optical parametric oscillators, Phys. Rev. B 90, 235304 (2014).
  2. C. Antón, D. Solnyshkov, G. Tosi, M. D. Martín, Z. Hatzopoulos, G. Deligeorgis, P. G. Savvidis, G. Malpuech, and L. Viña, Ignition and formation dynamics of a polariton condensate on a semiconductor microcavity pillar, Phys. Rev. B 90, 155311 (2014).
  3. D.D. Solnyshkov, H. Terças, G. Malpuech, Optical amplifier based on guided polaritons in GaN and ZnO. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231102 (2014).
  4. H. Terças, H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, "Non-Abelian gauge fields in photonic cavities and photonic superfluids", Phys. Rev. Letters 112, 066402 (2014).
  5. H. Terças, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, "High-Speed DC Transport of Emergent Monopoles in Spinor Photonic Fluids", Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 036403 (2014).
  6. D. Solnyshkov, H. Terças, K. Dini, G. Malpuech, "Hybrid Boltzmann-Gross-Pitaevskii theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in open driven-dissipative systems", Phys. Rev. A 89, 033626 (2014).
  7. T. Jacqmin, I. Carusotto, I. Sagnes, M. Abbarchi, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, E. Galopin, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, A. Amo, "Direct Observation of Dirac Cones and a Flatband in a Honeycomb Lattice for Polaritons", Phys. Rev. Letters 112, 116402 (2014).
  8. C. Sturm, D. Tanese, H.S. Nguyen, H. Flayac, E. Galopin, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, D. Solnyshkov, A. Amo, G. Malpuech, "All-optical phase modulation in a cavity-polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Nature Communications 5, 3278 (2014).
2013
  1. J. Cuadra, D. Sarkar, L. Vina, J.M. Hvam, A. Nalitov, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, "Polarized emission in polariton condensates: Switching in a one-dimensional natural trap versus inversion in two dimensions", Phys. Rev. B 88, 235312 (2013).
  2. H. Flayac, H. Terças, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, "Superfluidity of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates", Phys. Rev. B 88, 18 (2013).
  3. D. Tanese, H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, A. Amo, A. Lemaitre, E. Galopin, R. Braive, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, G. Malpuech, J. Bloch, "Polariton condensation in solitonic gap states in a one-dimensional periodic potential", Nature Comm. 4, 1749(2013).
  4. D. Vishnevsky, H. Flayac, A. Nalitov, D. Solnyshkov, N.A. Gippius, G. Malpuech, "Skyrmion Formation and Optical Spin-Hall Effect in an Expanding Coherent Cloud of Indirect Excitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 246404 (2013).
  5. H. S. Nguyen, D. Vishnevsky, C. Sturm, D. Tanese, D. Solnyshkov, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, "Realization of a Double-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Diode for Cavity Polaritons", Phys. Rev. Letters 110, 236601 (2013).
  6. Feng Li, L. Orosz, O. Kamoun, S. Bouchoule, C. Brimont, P. Disseix, T. Guillet, X. Lafosse, M. Leroux, J. Leymarie, G. Malpuech, M. Mexis, M. Mihailovic, G. Patriarche, F. Reveret, D. Solnyshkov and J. Zuniga-Perez, "Fabriaction and characterization of a room-temperature ZnO polariton laser", Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191118 (2013).
  7. Feng Li, L. Orosz, O. Kamoun, S. Bouchoule, C. Brimont, P. Disseix, T. Guillet, X. Lafosse, M. Leroux, J. Leymarie, M. Mexis, M. Mihailovic, G. Patriarche, F. Réveret, D. Solnyshkov, J. Zuniga-Perez, and G. Malpuech, "From Excitonic to Photonic Polariton Condensate in a ZnO-Based Microcavity", Phys. Rev. Letters 110, 196406 (2013).
  8. H. Terças, D. D. Solnyshkov, and G. Malpuech, "Topological Wigner Crystal of Half-Solitons in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate", Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 035303 (2013).
  9.  H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, I. A. Shelykh, and G. Malpuech, "Transmutation of Skyrmions to Half-Solitons Driven by the Nonlinear Optical Spin Hall Effect", Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 016404 (2013).
  10. M. Abbarchi, A. Amo, V.G. Sala, D. Solnyshkov, H. Flayac, L. Ferrier, I. Sagnes, E. Galopin, A. Lemaitre, G. Malpuech, J. Bloch, "Macroscopic quantum self-trapping and Josephson oscillations of exciton-polaritons", Nature Physics 9, 275 (2013).
  11. G. Pavlovic, G. Malpuech, I.A. Shelykh, "Pseudospin dynamics in multimode polaritonic Josephson junctions", Phys. Rev. B 87, 125307 (2013).
  12. H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Shelykh, "Parametric inversion of spin currents in semiconductor microcavities", Phys. Rev. B 87, 075316 (2013).
2012
  1. E. Wertz, A. Amo, D. D. Solnyshkov, L. Ferrier, T. C. H. Liew, D. Sanvitto, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, "Propagation and Amplification Dynamics of 1D Polariton Condensates", Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 216404 (2012).
  2. R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, A. Amo, "Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles", Nature Physics 8, 724 (2012).
  3. H. Flayac, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, "Separation and acceleration of magnetic monopole analogs in semiconductor microcavities", New Journal of Physics 14, 085018 (2012).
  4. D. Vishnevsky, D. Solnyshkov, N.A. Gippiues, G. Malpuech, "Multistability of cavity exciton polaritons affected by the thermally generated exciton reservoir", Phys. Rev. B 85, 155328 (2012).
  5. Marta Galbiati, Lydie Ferrier, Dmitry D. Solnyshkov, Dimitrii Tanese, Esther Wertz, Alberto Amo, Marco Abbarchi, Pascale Senellart, Isabelle Sagnes, Aristide Lemaître, Elisabeth Galopin, Guillaume Malpuech, and Jacqueline Bloch, "Polariton condensation in Photonic Molecules", Phys. Rev. Letters 108, 126403 (2012).
  6. L. Orosz, F. Reveret, F. Medard, P. Disseix, J. Leymarie, M. Mihailovic, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, J. Zuniga-Perez, F. Semond, M. Leroux, S. Bouchoule, X. Lafosse, M. Mexis, C. Brimont ,T. Guillet, "LO-phonon-assisted polariton lasing in a ZnO-based microcavity", Phys. Rev. B 85, 121201 (2012).
  7.  D. Solnyshkov, H. Flayac, G. Malpuech, "Stable magnetic monopoles in spinor polariton condensates", Phys. Rev. B 85, 073105 (2012).
  8. D. Tanese, D. D. Solnyshkov, A. Amo, L. Ferrier, E. Bernet-Rollande, E. Wertz, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, "Backscattering Suppression in Supersonic 1D Polariton Condensates", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 036405 (2012).
2011
  1. N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen. "Three-Dimensional Plasmon Rulers," Science 332, 1407 (2011).
  2. D. V. Vishnevsky, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, N. A. Gippius, and I. A. Shelykh, Coherent interactions between phonons and exciton or exciton-polariton condensates, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035312 (2011).
  3. H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, and G. Malpuech, Oblique half-solitons and their generation in exciton-polariton condensates, Phys. Rev. B 83, 193305 (2011).
  4. Lydie Ferrier, Esther Wertz, Robert Johne, Dmitry D. Solnyshkov, Pascale Senellart, Isabelle Sagnes, Aristide Lemaître, Guillaume Malpuech, and Jacqueline Bloch, Interactions in Confined Polariton Condensates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 126401 (2011).
  5. H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, and G. Malpuech, Bloch oscillations of an exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate, Phys. Rev. B 83, 045412 (2011).
  6. A. Trichet, L. Sun, G. Pavlovic, N.A. Gippius, G. Malpuech, W. Xie, Z. Chen, M. Richard, and Le Si Dang, One-dimensional ZnO exciton polaritons with negligible thermal broadening at room temperature, Phys. Rev. B 83, 041302 (2011).
  7. D. Solnyshkov, H. Flayac, G. Malpuech, "Black holes and wormholes in spinor polariton condensates", Phys. Rev. B 84, 233405 (2011).
2010
  1. D. Sarkar, S. S. Gavrilov, M. Sich, J. H. Quilter, R. A. Bradley, N. A. Gippius, K. Guda, V. D. Kulakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, Polarization Bistability and Resultant Spin Rings in Semiconductor Microcavities, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 216402 (2010).
  2. S.S. Gavrilov, A.S. Brichkin, A.A. Dorodnyi, S.G. Tikhodeev, N.A. Gippius, V.D. Kulakovskii, Polarization instability in a polariton system in semiconductor microcavities, JETP Letters 92, 171 (2010).
  3. M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.W. Hubers, N.A. Gippius, Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).
  4. G. Pavlovic, G. Malpuech, N.A. Gippius, Dispersion and polarization conversion of whispering gallery modes in nanowires, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195328 (2010).
  5. E.B. Magnusson, H. Flayac, G. Malpuech, I. Shelykh, Role of phonons in Josephson oscillations of excitonic and polaritonic condensates, Phys. Rev. B 82, 195312 (2010).
  6. E. Wertz, L.Ferrier, D.D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A.V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech and J. Bloch, Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates, Nature Physics DOI : 10.1038/NPHYS1750 (2010).
  7. M. Vladimirova, S. Cronenberger, D. Scalbert, K.V. Kavokin, A. Miard, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, and A.V. Kavokin, Polariton-polariton interaction constants in microcavities, Phys. Rev. B 82, 075301 (2010).
  8. N.A. Gippius ; Thomas Weiss, S.G. Tikhodeev ; H. Giessen, Resonant mode coupling of optical resonances in stacked nanostructures, Optics Express 18, 7569 (2010).
  9. T. V. Shubina, A. V. Andrianov, A. O. Zakhar’in, V. N. Jmerik, I. P. Soshnikov, T. A. Komissarova, A. A. Usikova, P. S. Kop’ev, S. V. Ivanov, V. A. Shalygin, A. N. Sofronov, D. A. Firsov, L. E. Vorob’ev, N. A. Gippius, J. Leymarie, X. Wang, and Akihiko Yoshikawa, Terahertz electroluminescence of surface plasmons from nanostructured InN layers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 183106 (2010).
  10. S.S. Gavrilov, N.A. Gippius, S.G. Tikhodeev, V.D. Kulakovskii, Multistability of the optical response in a system of quasi-two-dimensional exciton polaritons, JETP 110, 825 (2010).
  11. N.A. Gippius, T. Weiss, S.G. Tikhodeev, H. Giessen, Resonant mode coupling of optical resonances in stacked nanostructures, Optics Express 18, 7569 (2010).
  12. P.V. Eluytin, N.S. Maslova, N.A. Gippius, Oscillator heating by the colored noise, JETP Letters 90, 731 (2010).
  13. I.A. Shelykh, A.V. Kavokin, Y.G. Rubo, T.H.C. Liew, and G. Malpuech, Polariton polarization-sensitive phenomena in planar semiconductor microcavities, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 013001 (2010).
  14. R. Johne, I. A. Shelykh, D. D. Solnyshkov, and G. Malpuech, Polaritonic analogue of Datta and Das spin transistor, Phys Rev B 81, 125327 (2010).
  15. Jacques Levrat, Raphaël Butté, Eric Feltin, Jean-François Carlin, Nicolas Grandjean, Dmitry Solnyshkov, and Guillaume Malpuech, Condensation phase diagram of cavity polaritons in GaN-based microcavities : Experiment and theory, Phys Rev B 81, 125305 (2010).
  16. H. Flayac, I. A. Shelykh, D. D. Solnyshkov, and G. Malpuech, Topological stability of the half-vortices in spinor exciton-polariton condensates, Phys Rev B 81, 045318 (2010).